Translation and validation of a Finnish version of the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) Scale


  • Arttu Mentula Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland
  • Mikko Uimonen Department of Surgery, Central Finland Hospital Nova, Jyväskylä, Finland; Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
  • Andrew Lindford Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland
  • Sinikka Suominen Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland
  • Jussi P. Repo Unit of Musculoskeletal Surgery, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology Tampere, University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
  • Tuija Ylä-Kotola Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland



Facial paralysis, FaCE scale, Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale, Health-Related Quality of Life, Validation, Translation


Background: The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) scale is a patient-reported health status instrument developed for assessing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with facial nerve paralysis. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the FaCE scale for the Finnish-speaking population.
Methods: The FaCE scale was translated according to international guidelines. Sixty patients in an outpatient clinic prospectively completed the translated FaCE scale and generic HRQoL instrument (15D). The objective facial paralysis grading was made using the Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann scales. Repeated FaCE and 15D instruments were mailed to patients 2 weeks later. Total scores of the FaCE instrument and subscales were calculated, and floor and ceiling effects were examined. Exploratory factor analysis was made. Internal consistency, reliability, and repeatability were assessed. Convergence with 15D instrument, Sunnybrook, and House-Brackmann scales was examined.
Results: The total internal consistency of the FaCE scale was high (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83). There were no statistically significant differences found between mean scores of the subscales in test-retest analysis (p > 0.05). Intra-class correlations coefficients were high, ranging between 0.78 and 0.92, and the correlations were statistically significant (p < 0.001). There were statistically significant correlations observed between the FaCE scale and the 15D, Sunnybrook, and House-Brackmann scores.
Conclusion: The FaCE scale was successfully translated and validated in Finnish with good validity and reliability. We also demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the generic HRQoL15D instrument and both the Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann physician-based grading scales. The FaCE scale is now ready for use in Finnish facial paralysis patients.


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How to Cite

Mentula, A., Uimonen, M., Lindford, A., Suominen, S., Repo , J. P., & Ylä-Kotola, T. (2023). Translation and validation of a Finnish version of the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) Scale. Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, 58, 33–39.



Original Research Articles