Use of artificial intelligence large language models as a clinical tool in rehabilitation medicine: a comparative test case


  • Liang Zhang Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Japan
  • Syoichi Tashiro Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Japan; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Japan
  • Masahiko Mukaino Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hokkaido University Hospital, Japan
  • Shin Yamada Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Japan



Artificial Intelligence, Large Language Models, Rehabilitation Prescriptions, International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) codes


Objective: To explore the potential use of artificial intelligence language models in formulating rehabilitation prescriptions and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) codes. 

Design: Comparative study based on a single case report compared to standard answers from a textbook.

Subjects: A stroke case from textbook. 

Methods: Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer-4 (ChatGPT-4)was used to generate comprehensive medical and rehabilitation prescription information and ICF codes pertaining to the stroke case. This information was compared with standard answers from textbook, and 2 licensed Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR) clinicians reviewed the artificial intelligence recommendations for further discussion.

Results: ChatGPT-4 effectively formulated rehabilitation prescriptions and ICF codes for a typical stroke case, together with a rationale to support its recommendations. This information was generated in seconds. Compared with standard answers, the large language model generated broader and more general prescriptions in terms of medical problems and management plans, rehabilitation problems and management plans, as well as rehabilitation goals. It also demonstrated the ability to propose specified approaches for each rehabilitation therapy. The language model made an error regarding the ICF category for the stroke case, but no mistakes were identified in the ICF codes assigned. 

Conclusion: This test case suggests that artificial intelligence language models have potential use in facilitating clinical practice and education in the field of rehabilitation medicine.


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How to Cite

Zhang, L., Tashiro, S., Mukaino, M., & Yamada, S. (2023). Use of artificial intelligence large language models as a clinical tool in rehabilitation medicine: a comparative test case. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 55, jrm13373.



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